Location, Location, Location: The Art of Sound
by Alicia Dillon

In its many faculties (development, synthesis, production), sound has had a long and storied history with technology; a history which is a topic in and of itself. Hence, rather than trace this particular history, this article will briefly discuss sound in relation to site specificity while concentrating on the ways sound artists and their audiences have engaged and reacted to recording and listening technologies (notably those which remain portable). Moreover, through establishing the presence and importance of advances in sound technology and industry, this article makes an argument for the fact that this conflation has affected human’s very interaction with, and understanding of, geography (their cultural and physical landscape).

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1. Introduction

Today, portable music technology has increasingly allowed us to create and dictate our own soundtracks. However, long before we as individuals chose to consciously alter our auditory landscape, throughout history there have been larger forces shaping, developing, and manipulating the auditory contents of our daily lives. Which, is to say that the process of a technologically and architecturally mediated auditory landscape is not, and never was, natural, but with the advent of personal portable technologies, the opportunity has arisen for sampling and listening to become a controlled force.
The original Sony Walkman
The original Sony Walkman
As the original form of transportation, walking is the most primitive way by which we traverse our cities and towns. While cars long had radios and tape players, the ability to walk and listen to is a relatively new historical experience. “The Walkman has been described as the ultimate object of contemporary nomadism, a portable soundtrack which gives an intensely private— and therefore removed experience in a public place (Chambers 2004)” (Butler, 898). Although the Walkman and it's future, more digitized, iterations (such as the iPod) allow for a custom and controlled listening experience, to say that it provides a removed experience is not necessarily true. Where as with site specific recordings this is possible, as we will see through the diagram below which details possibilities of reception, listening experiences remain wholly unique when it comes to the individual. Moreover, phenomenologically speaking, “the ‘melding’ between the artwork and the consciousness of the participant also means that the walk [or consumption of a piece] is a highly specific experience that will differ according to the mood and circumstances of each listener on a particular day; ‘it will clearly not be experienced by people in the same way’ (Pinder 2001:1–19)” (Butler, 896).

It is important when discussing sound to keep in mind distinctions between sound, music, and noise. Moreover, in order to elucidate sound in relation site specificity two distinctions must be made. First, we must understand that sound sampled from a specific location, and the practice of listening to sound in a location, are both site specific but site specific in divergent manners. Second, site specificity is a concept that can also be used to understand the way a sampled sound recalls a particular time/place/space in the world and, moreover, in its ability to locate itself even after it has been removed, has the capacity to become constitutive of that location and the bodies that inhabit it.

The following presents an analysis of how technological advancements have enabled, enhanced, and altered perceived experiences of sound and more specifically speaking, music. Through an analysis of sound artists engaged with site specific sampling and installation, personal (individual) electronically mediated musical experiences will be explored. Moreover, in combination with extending site-specificity to mean locations that are both cultural, global, and ambient-- by tracing sound in relation to phenomenology, the contemporary body’s engagement with technology, and moreover through the work of a variety site specific sound artists-- the following discusses how this synthesis of site and sound is enacted to allow one to transcend out of or come into a lived experience, and how this lived experience in turn is iterated in sociocultural moires and constructions of the self.

2. Sound: Making the "Next Move"

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While the story of industrialization is well established, of particular importance is the fact that, “...this change in amount and type of sound (ornoise, a more disparaging word for sounds that are judged to be unpleasant) has accumulated steadily since the early modern period, and has had subtle but major effects on conceptions of place and identity” (Butler 890, emphasis mine). Naturally, the combination of dramatic changes to what people heard lead to significant shifts in the ways in which people listened.

Alongside the evolution of the changing character of what constitutes quotidian or mundane characteristics of sound, came parallel shifts in the technologies that mediated these experiences and capacities of listening . The role of recording and listening technologies have consistently, “shaped the evolution of sound art; radio, phonograph, and cheap tape recorders meant that performance could escape the shackles of fixed place and time,” a move which revolutionized our present embodied experience, understanding of identity, and relationship to location and sound.

However, with this new relationship to sound there was a new effort to control sound; for people soon desired using this control as a personal way to manipulate and restrict l the sound they consumed directly (through sound technologies), and those they were subjected to in their external living environments.
A fundamental compulsion to control the behavior of sound drove technological developments in architectural acoustics, and this imperative simulated auditors to listen more critically, to determine whether that control had been accomplished. This desire for control stemmed partly from worries about noise, as traditional bothersome sources of sound like animals, peddlers, and musicians were increasingly drown out by the technological crescendo of the modern city. It was also driven by a preoccupation with efficency that demanded the elimination of all things unnecessary, including unnecessary sounds. Finally, control was a means by which to exercise choice in a market filled with aural commodities; it allowed producers and consumers alike to identify what constituted ‘good sound,” and to evaluate whether particular producers achieved it. - Emily Ann Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity ( 2)

Soudscape engages ideas of sound as landscape, and relates to the practice of creating sound sculptures
Soudscape engages ideas of sound as landscape, and relates to the practice of creating sound sculptures
At the turn of modern era acousticians were at work "reengineering harmony" (Thompson, 6). And in the arts, as a natural progression of this idea soon came the idea of pieces conceived as soundscapes and sound sculptures. Soundscape was coined in 1964 and is defined by Merriam Webster Dictionaries as a: melange of musical and sometimes non-musical sounds. Others, such as R. Murray Schafer defined soundscape as, “a sonic environment,” a metaphor which is useful for understanding that as an environment it can be polluted, etc. Lastly, it can also be discussed as an “auditory or aural landscape” (Thompson, 1). Therefore, “like a landscape, a soundscape is simultaneously a physical environment and a way of perceiving that environment it is both a world and a culture constructed to make sense of that world. The physical aspects of a soundscape consist not only of the sounds themselves, the waves of acoustical energy permeating the atmosphere in which people live, but also the material objects that create, and sometimes destroy those sounds." (Butler)

2.1 Navigating the Lived Experience

Sound art is largely dependent on the act of walking, even if it is not a large distance, the navigation of space in relation to sensory cues is inherent to the act of consuming sound art. Although in this case sound is the assumed primary force, the concept of dérive clarifies the act of opening up a conceptual space for such possibilities of interaction. Moreover, as phenomenology asserts the conceptual significance of human's conscious interaction with space, a brief explanation of this concept as it applies to sound technologies is necessary to argue that the human experience of the tangible, as an effect, establishes the intangible.

Debord, the Situationists and Psychogeography
Guy Debord , amongst his many contributions, headed the Situationists International, a group which was engaged with the practice of the an unrestricted exploration of thecity known as a dérive. For Debord, cities were composed of sets of pychogeographical reliefs which were to be navigated in ways which would activate a more embodied, direct, and dynamic way of experiencing the city (Pinder 2003). "The Situationist International applauded the detournement of existing works in the optic of impassioning every-day life, favoring the construction of lived situations over the fabrication of works that confirmed the division between actors and spectators of existence. ... cities, buildings, and works were to be considered parts of a backdrop or festive and playful tools... situations, which had to be constructed, were experienced, ephemeral, and immaterial works, an art of the passing of time resistant to any fixed limitations" (Bourriaud, 2002. emphasis mine).

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Merleau-Ponty: Phenomenology
This essay is specifically concerned with site specific sound as it applies to producers and receivers. As phenomenology is concerned with the first-person (ie: individual) experience, "literally, phenomenology is the study of 'phenomena': appearance of things, or things as they appear in our experience, or the ways we experience things, thus the meanings things have in our experience[1] ," it proves important in elaborating the personal, lived, experience.

2.2 Portable Music Technology/ Possibilities for Listening

Sound artists use these ideas and mechanisms to produce location based sound art. This diagram below represents the specific constraints within which sound art is being addressed:

As seen in Figure 1, location based sound is comprised of two main agents, the composer and the listener. With these two agents there are a variety of options for producing and consuming sound, and location can play a variety of roles. Sound is sampled and then either consumed in the form of a live performance or the playback of a recording. This act consumption can be undertaken in an institutionalized space, a venue, or an open environment.

Hence, this is certainly not to say that this diagram is an exhaustive representation of every possibility for technological engagement with sound. More so it is to elucidate the fact that, within the specific theoretical framework of this essay, sound is being discussed in relationship to the categorical definitions of site specificity.

3. Site Specific Instillation: Locating Sound in Practice

3.1 Sound Sculptures

Many locate the beginning of sound art in the institutional space with John Cage's famous 1952 performance of 4'33", a silent piece which was meant to sensitize the audience to the ambient sounds native to the room they were presently sitting as these sounds were in essence the "composition." Since the production of this piece, sound art has been increasingly in dialogue with fine arts spaces and therefore institutions, as well as, to borrow from Pierre Bourdieu, "institutional wrappers."

Pictured: Claude Monet, The Thames below Westminster. apx 1871.  Jem Finer's piece at the National Gallery of Art London in which he composes a musical response to Monet's painting.
Pictured: Claude Monet, The Thames below Westminster. apx 1871. Jem Finer's piece at the National Gallery of Art London in which he composes a musical response to Monet's painting.

Amongst his many discussions of cultural objects, Bourdieu is particularly key in unpacking the role of location in sound art when it comes to institutional housing as well as his assessments of the role of culture in the reproduction social structures, and the ways that perceptions of reality are taken for granted by members of society (Johnson). For whether or not artists are seeking to directly put the codes of an institutionalized space into play, artist's work is necessarily in dialogue with the presence or absence of these codes. Institutions prime, and in essence predetermine, the framework through which we do, and are able to, interact with cultural objects. Hence, directly engaging our phenomenological interaction with sound.

As an environmental element, sound is often coded by source (ie: natural, industrial, manmade) rather than through the venue or means by which it is received. However, reception and location are of the utmost importance, and moreover, the proleptic institutional code is ever present (it is not necessary to have walls in order to have the presence of an institutional code).

Sound artist Susan Philipsz's installation of her a cappella recording of the classic British folk song “Lowlands," a tale of a sailor who has drown at sea and is returning in the song to tell his lover of his demise.[2]

Originally installed under bridges along the River Clyde in the artist's native Glasgow, the piece melded with the history and the ambient noise of the chosen site. As Philipsz speaks to in her discussion of her piece, the individual's interaction with the piece is distinct in these two spaces: one which is highly institutionalized, where individuals are primed for a critical listening experience and the other where pedestrians encounter her voice recording as a passing moment in their commute.

Susan Philipsz, Lowlands, Tate Britain 2010
Susan Philipsz, Lowlands, Tate Britain 2010

In 1994 sound artist Bill Fontana installed Sound Island in the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. The piece consisted of a live broadcast of sounds sourced from 16 different locations throughout the city, which were then projected on a platform above the monument. “... sounds they live with every day in a new way. In addition to the artist's statement, in which he discusses his prolonged engagement with hybrid listening technologies, throughout his career Fontana has consistently worked outside the museum or art gallery. The artist believes museums and galleries are, "institutions devoted to the visual, retinal experience" (Butler, 892). As such, as Fontana elaborated in 2004, "The idea of placing a sound sculpture inside a museum space, which cannot be seen with the eyes is an apparent contradiction, which is why so few museums have ever been interested in the type of work I am doing." And so surely the artist's understanding of institution carries through to the way he engages the city, in the case of Paris, and a different type of "institution" as with one of his most recent pieces River Sounding which was installed in Somerset House London.

3.2 Location Aware Sound

Where as some sound works are presented in highly controlled locations, some are uncontrollable, with some using this modern element of control to activate the crux of their piece.

Resonance FM 104.4 fm London established by London Musician's Collective, is a heavily found sound based radio station which describes itself as, "an archive of the new, the undiscovered, the forgotten, the impossible.... an invisible gallery, a virtual arts centre whose location is at once local, global, and timeless." Through their platform of the radio, the station itself has no control over where these sounds will be projected.

The artist duo Bluebrain created a soundscape wholly dependent on the human body and GPS technologies. Developed exclusively for the Apple iPhone and available for download through the Apple App Store, The National Mall simultaneously depends on listener's action of walking, alongside their location, as well as the original auditory environment present.

Bluebrain has been marketing their latest album The National Mall as the first "location aware album."
Bluebrain has been marketing their latest album The National Mall as the first "location aware album."

Bluebrain represents the practice of location specific sound. In Spring 2011, the artists selected their hometown, Washington, DC as the site for their 'location aware album.' If we are willing to concede to the role of sound (natural, manmade, produced) in our everyday experience of a city, the album, entitled The National Mall, suggests that Hays and Ryan Holladay’s site-specific soundtrack possesses the unique possibility of simultaneously creating and altering location awareness and experience; serving as further proof that the emerging complexity of contemporary audiovisual networks is not to be dismissed. Representing an increasing engagement with hybridity, as stated on the artist's website: "Each position on the map has been carefully considered, the music composed and recorded to be heard in their specific place in the same way you would hear a piece of music on a physical record. However, because each listener will explore the Mall in a different way and at a different pace, experiences with the album will be unique in sequencing and in arrangement." Therefore, users will each gain a unique, instantaneous experience; something increasingly hard to come by in todays micro-mediated world. Depending on the way that the listener chooses to activate the album through their pace, as well as the listening technology they choose to consume it through (the type of headphones used is integral to what is heard both in the album as well as in the original soundscape of the city).

Bluebrain Record Store Day Release 2011 from FCTN on Vimeo.

Here, through redirecting and therefore transporting the audience's auditory experience, they are presented with a unique and altered experience of their present. Furthermore, this interactive and ever changing platform thus maintains a rich site for the possibility of denying expectations of the medium, narrative, and format.

4. Site Specific Sampling

“Noise tends to bleed over boundaries; it is fluid and in its plurality uncontrollable” (Wolfe, 892).
One could argue that all sound is site specific; for practices of listening are certainly conditioned and coded by the environment in which they are received. However, here, a more productive argument is not for this inherent fact (ie: that location affects perception) but rather that sounds reference their makers; we attempt to discern the object which produced sound and understand it in relation to the (cultural, global, institutional) site that object exists.

Soundwalk Collective
Soundwalk Collective, which operates in a parallel discourse of fine art and music, represents the practice of collecting sound from specific global locations (hence the name, soundwalk) and then compiling and mixing these sounds into audio tracks which are presented as live performances. Soundwalk, an artist collective comprised of Stephan Crasneanscki of France, Dug Winningham of the US, Simone Merli of Italy, and Kamran Sadeghi with roots in both the US and Iran present another case for the examination of. Below is the artist’s statement as seen on their website:

Founded in 2000- Soundwalk has meticulously charted routes from the deserts of Oman to the open sea of the Mediteranean and back to the streets of New York City capturing sound. With this ever growing catalogue of environmental recordings, intercepted communication, distant song and the obscure, Soundwalk creates what can be described as audible journeys that retrace our natural, urban and social landscapes. Soundwalk has created work for multi-format releases, live performances and installations.

In their piece Ulysses Syndrome the group used the text Ulysses as a guide from which to plot a journey along the Mediterranean sea from Troy to Ithica. Thus, with this piece, the group's finished work incorporates both a weighty literary reference as well as the combine history of the site itself. Installed across the globe, the function of this strategic sound sampling and mixing, the activation of meaning is once again made site dependent. Moreover, while the meaning of these sampled sounds shifts which each venue and listening experience, the collective instillation history is in a continual process of rendering meaning onto the sampled sound itself. Through the process of assigning sound to a specific global site, playback serves as a dual tool through which both the piece itself and the place from which the sound was sampled are assigned meaning.

Ulysses Syndrome was also produced as a limited series project. The piece was produced as a case with two vinyl turntables, high fidelity speakers, and three records pressed with Soundwalk Collective's Ulysses Syndrome

While the material for work of Soundwalk Collective depends on global sampling, they refer to and conceive of their finished pieces as instillations. The artists themselves compile a sound piece which embodies a journey, and therefore creates a sound piece that exists as a durational experience.

Yoko K.
Yoko K, a classically trained musician, is engaged with both sampling and mixing of found and original electronic sound. Her work attempts to utilize sound in order to achieve a reference that necessarily exists outside of one's present time/space/place. The artist describes her work as 'organic electronica' because sampling for her is an original process, and also, one can assume the title remains apt in the natural yet futuristic qualities of her music. Although they are entirely digitally recorded and mediated, the hard computer like qualities of much electronic music today remains absent. As an artist she is not engaged in remixing the (musical) work of others like many electronic artists who engage with remix. Her Ted talk forefronts this aspect of her practice, as well as presents the specific technologies through which she presents her work.

In addition to ambient location, many sound artists will speak to sound's transpirational properties, as the artist often speaks to the fact that she wishes for her music to transport people, to take them on a journey outside of themselves, if for only a moment. Almost in opposition to Bluebrain's task of creating a heightened experience of presence, this idea of sonorous transportation further speaks to the vast space sound and technology stand to inhabit. David Bryn has commented that in sound, “the point is that what transcends that reduction and schematization is not a substance, content, presence or place – not, in short, an anthropological authenticity – but rather a ‘‘beyond’’ (Byrne’s ‘‘voices from another planet’’) in which ‘‘there is no there there,’’ a beyond that is not, in Derrida’s terms, a ‘‘place.’’ In short, the transcendent must be rethought as the virtual” (Wolfe, 92-3).

Brian Eno and David Bryn: My Life in a Bush of Ghosts

In many ways, this work of Brian Eno and David Bryn made practice of sampling before sampling had been established. Originally released in 1981, with a digital re-release in 2006 (with tracks available for remix), in its implementation of found sound, My Life in a Bush of Ghosts demonstrates how sound has connotations that are both culturally and historically specific. The source material for the tracks are 'natural' and organic in that they are found, however the compilation and remixing of these sounds and the titles under which they are presented, provides a far from neutral listening experience. “The record seemed to come from everywhere and nowhere, all at once.... simultaneously from both the past and the future. ... A record from a ‘‘Fourth World,’’ to borrow Jon Hassell’s term, from everywhere and nowhere, from past and future.1 In a word: spectral.” (Wolfe, 85-6)[3]

For instance, the track Jezebel which features a radio sample of a late night talk show in which a priest was performing an on air exorcism functions. While it was chance that that girl's name was Jezebel, we as listeners must question how the intonation of the preacher's voice references Southern America, an America that in itself references a bygone era of the nations past, and how our location of the speaker as Southern affects our perception of the contents of the arrangement.

Furthermore, in the controversial track Q'uran, its clearly Middle Eastern beats served as a backdrop.

Amon Tobin
The visuals for Isam were produced in collaboration with Tessa Farmer
The visuals for Isam were produced in collaboration with Tessa Farmer

Also in dialogue with the space created by the Eno and Bryn, Amon Tobin's latest piece Isam plays on the process of, "rearranging and augmenting natural elements to make something imagined but tangible."

As a practitioner of sound art, in both his recordings and performances Tobin recalls the fact that the act of listening to found, remixed, sound, "diminishes the dividing line between reception and practice, producing new cartographies of knowledge. This recycling of sounds, images, and forms implies incessant navigation within the meanderings of cultural history, navigation which itself becomes the subject of artistic practice" (Bourriaud, 2002). His selection of sounds which might most often be described as wonderful 'noises,' Tobin creates complex and accomplished musical synthesis of the everyday. Moreover his works support the fact that, "with music derived from sampling, the sample no longer represents anything more than a salient point in a shifting cartography (Bourriaud, 2002)," in other words, a global mapping of sound, tagged and indexed by it's source and the source's category, along with historical and physical location.

4.1 Site Specificity and Technology: Constructing Identity

“These machines have always been there, they are always there, even when we wrote by hand, even during so called live conversation. And yet, the greatest compatibility, the greatest coordination, the most vivid of possible affinities seems to be asserting itself, today, between what appears to be most alive, most live” - Derrida, Ecography of Television, 38[4]

Sound, then, is not neutral:its referential qualities demand that it remains an active shaping force in locating culture as well as locating consumers.
external image speech.jpgIn seeking to define “What is Posthumanism?,” Cary Wolfe writes, “Indeed, the ‘‘human’’ is itself a prosthetic being, who from day one is constituted as human by its co-evolution with and co-constitution by external archival technologies of various kinds" (Wolfe, 90). Today, not only are we increasingly consuming more within technological spaces, we are responding in ways which reflect an increased adeptness in understanding narratives through digital multimedia platforms. “Gregory Bateson calls the ‘‘real magnitudes’’ of analog media, which depends for its effects on the specific, embodied positionality and movement of its components (for example, the proximity of the video camera to the television screen on which its feedback creates distortion)” (Wolfe, 89). Where as the digital is unchangeable the analog is affected by outside forces, so here with the introduction of chance in digital recordings, a known quantity is unforeseeably remixed and altered in the way it is received. This idea of re-introducing chance into the digital is of particular importance with site specific sound art, as these are the very areas of the nature of technologically mediated sound that these artists seek to activate. Therefore, we can understand digital sound art as, in Derrida's terms, spectral, ‘‘because we know that, once it has been taken, captured, this image will be reproducible in our absence’’ (Echographies 117; emphasis in original)” (Wolfe, 90).

References we make, and the physical emotional experience we tie to the fact that when we consume sound “... at [that] very instant, we are living a very singular, unrepeatable moment, which you and I will remember as a contingent moment, which took place only once, of something that was live, that is love, that we think is simply live, but that will be reproduced as love, with a reference to this present and this moment anywhere anytime, weeks or years from now, reinscribed in other frames or ‘contexts’” (Derrida, 38).

5. Conclusion: Sound Art as Hybrid

“A soundscape, like a landscape, ultimately has more to do with civilization than with nature, and as such, it is constantly under construction and always undergoing change” (Thompson, 2).

Sound art itself is hybrid in its use of listening/recording technologies, and in the way that our bodies themselves become the activatingforcein these works (the activation coming from our unique perception of these works). In part due to the aforementioned definition of site specificity as a concept that can be used to understand the way a sampled sound recalls a particular time/place/space, while confirming location based sampling and installation as possibility in “the next move” in sound art and music in general, the work of sound artists has both congealed global identities and outlined definitions of music. The act of recording has allowed us as cultural beings to develop a time/space/place coded archive in which we store cultural products in order to create historical memory. "...because art is an activity that produces relationships to the world and in one form or another makes its relationships to space and time material," and once material, object-ness is more readily assigned, thus allowing for indexing and categorizing (Bourriaud, 2002). These conceptual categories are thus employed by humans to construct time (past present future) and history, and therefore simultaneously allows for the personal construction of ones own body with this web, ones unique identity in opposition to what you are not, the other. Due to the fact that we are able to establish a body for ourselves that operates within specific boundaries (the living present is the now, everything else is either the past or the future-- everything else that is not us is other), we assume that as we encounter audiovisual data that this is fleeting and therefore unique and unrepeatable.

An image of the soundmap produced from Soundwalk Collective's piece Ulysses Syndrome
An image of the soundmap produced from Soundwalk Collective's piece Ulysses Syndrome

Yet the advent of the recording made this this is far from true, as it opened up the possibility for anyone to (conceivably) consume the exact same experience at any given moment. So here then is where the location in which one listens and the location from which the recording was produced (content of the recording) become vital elements, not to mention that the goals of the producer stand to greatly affect the experience of the consumer by allowing them to come into the present, or transcend out into another time/space/place.

"In our daily lives, the gap that separates production and consumption narrows each day" (Bourriaud, 2002). When engaging with sound art, there are a variety of affects that can be achieved through it's (necessarily present)contextual references. We are either be made more aware of our present (through what we see as tangible, earthly, historically present references), transported outside of the lived (through the intangible, non-natural sounds to which we do not have organic references), or presented with an experience which activates a confection of the two; a sonic experience that collapses past (history), present, and future time/space/place. While, the idea and application of hybridity can of course be extended to every realm, one of the most fundamental hybrids is the auditory body: human sensory experience of space, time, and place which constructs our understanding of past/present/future. Therefore, an analysis of our increasingly technologically mediated and audio-visual-based engagement with our cities has come to produce one of the most fruitful spaces for unraveling modern sociocultural construction. Globalization has at once opened a space for these practices, while simultaneously complicated the ease through which we are able to assign clear-cut definitions to multimedia practices.[5]

External Resorces/References

Additional Artists and Exhibits
  1. Amon Tobin
  2. Bluebrain
  3. Janet Cardiff's The Missing Voice
  4. Graeme Miller's Linked
  5. My Life in a Bush of Ghosts

Music Resources
  1. Ninja Music Website
  2. Sound Cloud
  3. History of Electronic Music

Works Cited

  1. Bahaba, Homi. The Location of Culture. London; New York: Routledge, 1994.
  2. Barthes, Roland. A Lover's Discourse: Fragments. New York: Hill and Wang, 1978. Print.
  3. Benjamin, Walter . "The Work of Art in the Era of its Technological Reproducibility." (1936; English trans., Harry Zohn, 1968)
  4. Borriaud, Nicholas."Postproduction, Culture as Screenplay: How Art Reprograms the World." Lukas and Steinberg, New York. 2002.
  5. Bourdieu, Pierre, and Richard Nice. Distinction. London: Routledge, 2008. Print.
  6. Bourdieu, Pierre, and Randal Johnson. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. New York: Columbia UP, 1993.
  7. Butler, Toby. "A Walk of Art: The Potential of the Sound Walk as Practice in Cultural Geography." Social & Cultural Geography, 7.6 (2006).
  8. Debord, Guy. The Society of the Spectacle (1967)
  9. Derrida, Jacques, and Bernard Steigler. Ecographies of Television: Filmed Interviews. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2002. Print.
  10. Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 1999. Print.
  11. Miller, Paul D. Rhythm Science. Cambridge, MA: Mediawork/MIT, 2004. Print.
  12. Nederveen, Pieterse Jan. Globalization and Culture: Global Mélange. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009. Print.
  13. Putnam, James. Art and Artifact: The Museum as Medium. London; New York: Thames and Hudson, 2001. Print
  14. Soundwalk Collective
  15. Taylor, Mark C. The Moment of Complexity: Emerging Network Culture. London: University of Chicago, 2001. Print.
  16. Thompson, Emily Ann. “The Soundscape of Modernity.” MIT Press.
  17. Wolfe, Cary. What Is Posthumanism? Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2010. Print.

  1. ^ Stanford.edu, Phenomenology
  2. ^ In A Lover's Discourse Roland Barthes writes that, "it is characteristic of the voice to die. What constitutes the voice is what, within it, lacerates me by dint of having to die, as if it were once and never could be anything but a memory. This phantom being of the voice is what is dying out, it is that sonorous texture which disintegrates and disappears." Therefore, as a sonic tool this is to say that what makes the voice the voice, "is not that it is a form of presence (as the philosophical tradition tropes it according to Derrida) but that it is spectral” (Wolfe, 91). Hence, the meaning of performing a folk song about death is all the more resonant. Realizing the way that the voice is able to engage these things in a variety of spaces and how this functions in her original bridge installations against the backdrop of a city (drawing out subtle activations of tradition and the living body against the embodied history) as opposed to the way these recordings function in their Tate Britain instillation. As such, the recorded voice functions separately from the live voice, or the fleeting capacity of the remix. In as much as the recorded voice has a human presence, its conflation of time and space is both specific and transcendent: spectral.
  3. ^ Brian Eno described the samples of the album as enacting, “the asynchronicity of the ‘‘living present’’ with itself” (Wolfe, 93).
  4. ^ While in his use of the word machine Derrida speaks specifically to the idea of prosthesis,this quote relates to the ways that technological production and consumption constitute the way we understand time and space as "live." Especially as it relates to production and consumption of sound art, the idea of live must be understood as additionally connoting our experience of something as live act (that sound art can be perceived as live even if it is a live recording).
  5. ^ Here, Derrida is helpful in summarizing what this means moving forward. In his presentation of the fact that the cultural objects of our present reality, "we record now, the images we make now, will be iterable in our absence,” we are lead to understand the way in which captured sound recordings relate to the lived, the live and are therefore once recorded are irrefutably in dialogue with time/space/place (Wolfe, 90).