Langford Wiggins
Week 8

Warhol uses art to express many social/cultural events and issues, while portraying his own personal identity in his artworks. Warhol's use of repetition, color, and still images each provide meaning and "truth telling” to America.
external image Andy-Warhol-0011.jpg Warhol made Red Race Riot, a screen print is a version of the race riots photographed during the Civil Rights Movement and taken from Life Magazine. Warhol was, according to Thomas Crow, "attracted to the open sores in American political life". This image showcases pain and struggle with the use of red as its main color.

Hal Foster mentions the phrase "traumatic realism", which Warhol portrays through repetition in his artwork.

external image AndyWarhol-Jackie-Kennedy-1964.jpgThe repetition in the photo, Jackie Kennedy 1964, and the use of the color blue pushes the image when I looked through Warhol’s piecesof sadness, and tragedy, which prompts "straightforward expressions of feeling”. Expressing one’s feelings is the main goal of Warhol, according to Crow, who notes the underlining message of Warhol's depiction of glamour and celebrity is "the reality of suffering and death". Warhol decided to do this artwork during a time of hardship for Jackie Kennedy making evident his use of popular culture as a means for art expression, which supports and identifies Foster’s, “the shift from art to visual and history to culture”, theory.

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The use of Warhol in pop culture today has the effect of portraying glamour with an undertone ofreality and tragedy, in an ironic manner. Celebrities today mainly utilize the Warhol use of color and still images in an effort to sale clothing, market themselves. For instance Paris Hilton wearing a Paris Hilton Warhol t-shirt. America knows Paris Hilton for her fame, money and reality T.V. shows as well as her, criminal record and drug addiction. Utilizing Warhol's technique one can connect the glamour and the reality.

Elisabet Diaz Sanmartin

One of favorites film quotes is in the film Party Monster:

**James**: Michael, I hate when you make me say serious things, so I'm only going to say this once: You've gone too far with the drugs.
**Michael Alig**: Have you looked at yourself?
**James**: I'm not addicted to drugs, I'm addicted to glamour. (imbd)
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Andy Warhol was a glamour addict. Since he was young he admired the life’s of the rich and the famous people. His life goal was to be famous and rich. Through his artwork he captured what he believed was the essence of glamour: the image. Working as graphic designer for Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar magazine among others, he get involve in the Mass Media process and consolidated his aesthetics foci. He became a well known illustrator, artist and businessman exploring all kind of techniques; print artworks (Campbell soup), music manager (Velvet Underground & Nico), movies and television (Warhol TV) magazine (Interview)
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During the fifties Abstract Expressionism movement was leading the American art scene. Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko were leading the first significant North American art movement. This movement inherited the surrealist value of the expressiveness of the artist by emphasizing the brush and the suggestive power of abstraction. Conversely, Warhol attempted to reconnect art with “the real world” and go beyond the abstract mysticism. Emphasizing figurative art against the abstract art. Warhol did it, but violently, he draw a ordinary soup can with vibrant colors and claimed it as art. Mocking expressionism was part of his business strategy. (Honnef 21)
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The large collection of Marilyn Monroe series portraits were created few years after the death of the actress. He discovered the process of silk screening that allowed him to create a template as a stencil. Thus, he was able to use it multiple times and create paintings in short period of times (Rosenberg). Additionally this technique endowed Warhol’s artwork with the sprit of the mass consumer culture. Marilyn series exemplifies very well Warhol’s artwork and Pop art style. The theme is an icon, Marilyn Monroe, that can possess two ontological levels, Marilyn incarnates glamour and the sex appeal of the movie stars but also symbolize the American dream (Honnef 21). It uses a figurative language with a recognizable figure but not in a tradition way; there is not texture of light treatment, the image is flat. Only the colors can provide certain profundity but they are also applied very evenly due to the silk screen technique. The color combination is absolutely contrary with the abstract expressionism bid, that tended to opt for a more limited tonal range in favor of harmony. In fact, the colors are vibrant and intense. As they were a Fauvism paintings they are combined mostly primary colors to create a chromatic violence that catches the spectator’s attention strongly in the same manner that an advertisement does. The artificial colors on the lips and at the eye shadow, applied roughly, without delicacy appealed the glamorous transvestites showgirls during the 70’s (Wais Jr.). The formal characteristics gives to the image a sense of inexpressiveness and lack of depth. It does not lie, it is just a image.

This representation of glamour drives us to the starting point, the quote in the film Party Monster we see how glamour can be the excuse to everything in order to be desirable and appealing to others. Party Monster is a film that depicts the crazy lives of the co-founders of the Club Kid; Michael Alig and James St James. They created a party club that organized the most crazy and notorious night parties during the late 80’s and early 90’s. The Club Kid emerged after the death of Andy Warhol, being almost a “freak” prolongation of the eccentric and impertinent spirit that the pop artist promote during the The Factory period. The Kid Club claimed freedom of expression through flamboyant, extravagant and kirsch costumes. They revived the New York night’s scene and set in the American mainstream the Drag Queen phenomenon with memorable parties in underground stations, restaurants, etc. Inspired by the first splatter film, The Blood Feast, they organized a serie of outrageous parties where blood and death was the main theme, and to make it more spectacular, Michael Align paid fifty dollars to fifty people to real blood in their outfit.

However, the abuse of cocaine, ketamine and all kinds of drugs leaded the founder Michael Align to murder his dealer and brag the success on public in Television show. Now, he is still in prision. It is possible that Andy Warhol would enjoyed the flamboyance of the Club Kid founder but he would have not been felt in his fatal destiny. Warhol was an illusionist, he understood that “glamour” was a simulacrum, a fantasy, a spell on others. The focal point of Warhol’s expression was “to want to be nothing but image, surface, a bit of light on a screen, a mirror for the fantasies and a magnet for the desires of others.” Warhol sought to become a “business artist”, as he stated rather famous and rich than and artist. He found in “glamour” a way to reach his goal, a way to present himself and a way to sell his product.

Lady Gaga, has inherited the overflowed style of the Club Kids but also Warhol’s attitude towards fame at any cost. Lady Gaga created her character as a perfect hybrid: the name from a Queen song, the aesthetics and style of Bowie, the spectacular staging of Madonna and Michael Jackson and the simulacrum of Warhol. (Olvido, El Pais) She is a product, a perfect fantasy. Her style has gain eccentricity throughout her career, the costumes steem from the creativity and the freedom of The Club Kids outfits and with the premire that everything (cigarrette glasses, soda cans as curlers, diamon Lobster headdress) can be wear with high dosage of effrontery.
Warhol and the people around him created a “new” fashion trend that with the Club Kids evolved in Drag Queen culture’s style. Lady Gaga magnified the Drag Queen’s style and settled it within women pop art music domains. Now American pop artists such as Nicki Minaj or Katy Perry are taking Lady Gaga’s aesthetic proposal and using it in their concerts, music videos, etc. Nicky Minaj Copies Lady Gaga

Arielle Orem- Week 8 Wiki

As Thierry de Duve discussed in “Andy Warhol, or The Machine Perfected” (1989), capitalism is a central theme in Warhol’s work. To demonstrate this theme, I would like to look at a few of Warhol’s works which feature Chinese cultural icon and former leader of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Tse-Tsung. Warhol appropriated the original portrait of Mao by Zhang Zhenshi (1950), which hung in Tiananmen Square (below, left). Through his mechanically-stylized silk-screen process, he created a series of portraits of Mao during the 1970s (below, right).

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The repeating style of the portraits, varying only in the colorations used, references the industrial, mass-reproduction of images in contemporary capitalist culture. In using this style for portraiture, Warhol makes a strong statement about the use of mass-produced images in the creation of cultural icons. As an audience to these images, both Warhol’s and those of mass media, we consume the image as well as the celebrity that it depicts. As Paula B Hartless describes in her essay __Po Pomo: The Post Postmodern Condition__, “Warhol’s subjects were doubly commodities in and of themselves” (7).

In the case of Mao, I think Warhol is also alluding to the political power that the proliferation of images can wield. Warhol’s sense of irony is clear in this piece, as he uses one of the most well-known Communist figures to comment on capitalism. When Warhol was creating these portraits in the 1970s, China was just beginning to open its borders to the United States; his works are a commentary on the spread of Western capitalism into even communist states.
Additionally, I think Warhol is making a statement about queer culture, using camp sensibilities to depict the hyper-masculine Mao. In “__Notes on ‘camp’__,” Susan Sontag describes camp as “art that proposes itself seriously, but cannot be taken altogether seriously because it is ‘too much’.”

Paulina Johnson

Week 8

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Andy warhol was a pioneer in making the ordinary into something extraordinary. Things as commonplace as soupcans and sunsets were presented, using elements of repetition, in a manner which required the viewer to stop and look at the subject matter in a new light.

My eyes were caught on this image when I looked through Warhol’s pieces to write about.

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Honestly, I thought it looked strange, and I didn’t understand why it was titled “Ladies and Gentlemen” until I did some further research and realized that it was part of a series of paintings that Warhol did on drag queens. Warhol was openly gay and lived openly about something that many others could not admit to for fear of judgement. Knowing that background, along with his desire to push boundaries and redefine “normal,” it actually doesn’t surprise me that Warhol sought out drag queens to portray in his artwork.

Crimp makes an interesting point in his article when he notes that “art such as Smith's–and Warhol's–matters, why I want to make of it the art I need and the art I deserve, not because it reflects or refers to a historical gay identity and thus serves to confirm my own now, but because it disdains and defies the coherence and stability of all sexual identity.” Warhol’s series does just that, as the meshing of male and female busts in the “Ladies and Gentlemen” series is a subtle defiance of traditional gender and sexuality norms, across high and low culture.

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The color choices Warhol made in this image contribute to the message it gives. It’s interesting to think about the role of gender and sexual identities in the context of Warhol’s work.

Meggie Schmidt

Warhol’s work can be thought of as a documentary, a reflection on the modern world, and characterizing the changes that were occurring in society. Warhol is known for his fast turn around of works associated with mass production during the 1960s, as he highlights the material world and how consumerism floods the nation. The theme of death a disaster is exploited numerous times as Warhol recognizes the connection between pictorial and industrial repetition (Shanes 41-45).

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Bellevue I (1963) captures the idea of an anonymous suicide. Institutional confinement is the context, with the figures of a policeman, attendant, and a man in a white hospital gown present. The work consists of twelve replicated photos pressed onto the canvas with Warhol’s inventive silk-screening process. Sensitivity to the work is increased through the repetition of the image, as each of the twelve images has different levels of color and shading which make the viewer work to understand what he is seeing. By examining each level of the images, the viewer can take different elements from each. These elements come together in a comprehensive understanding of the story which Warhol has captured. Close attention to each figure almost takes away significance from the narrative that Warhol has portrayed. The compositional choices in terms of arrangement, screen pattern, and color show control. Warhol understood imperfections and distortions that make Bellevue I tell a story (‘After the Party’ 28).

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Green Car Crash (1963) was created as part of a series to satisfy Warhol’s obsession with car crashes that he had throughout his career. These works demand engagement and discussion among the viewers for their size, authority, and authenticity in depicting a violent scene. They portray the original narrative in a way that stimulates a psychological response from the viewer (Andy Warhol Death and Disaster 14). The typical American is personified in these works, as the images mark the moment that a shiny new car is disfigured. The American dream of owning a car for leisure and to get around easily is destroyed. Again, the consequences of consumerism and mass production are reinstated. Warhol doesn’t include any captions describing the scene, leaving the viewer to wonder who was involved in the car crash and the extent of the damage. An emotional response is triggered in the viewer, as they contemplate death as an everyday consequence of the American dream (Andy Warhol Death and Disaster 14).

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Little Electric Chair (1965) presents a contrast to Warhol’s car crash series with the absence of any humans in the work. It characterizes the change in contemporary politics when violent death emerged in the 1960s as a public issue. The viewer contemplates the presence and absence of those allotted the death penalty. The markings across the canvas look like an eraser was taken to the work, which could suggest

removing a life from the earth unnaturally. The emptiness of the work is reinforced by the stark contrast of dark and light, as well as the absence of anything other than an electric chair. Warhol presents death as nothingness and a void. According to Warhol, the reproduction of this picture to canvas was to “empty” all meaning (Andy Warhol Death and Disaster 16-17). By using the silk-screen process to create all of the stains, Warhol demonstrated his expressionist ability to connect a violent idea to the subject and surface of his work (‘After the Party’ 29).

Works Cited

After the Party, Andy Warhol Works 1956-1986. Dublin: Irish Museum of Modern Art, 1997. Print.

Shanes, Eric. Pop Art. New York: Parkstone Press International, 2009. Print.

The Menil Collection. Andy Warhol, Death and Disasters. Houston: Houston Fine Art Press, 1988. Print.


Week 8: Warhol World

Elizabeth-Burton Jones

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Growing up in art museums and ballet classrooms, art was all around me. I would devote every day of the week to some form of art. Whether it was sculpting classes on Saturday mornings, ballet classes at least four times a week, or piano lessons at least one day a week, art was always there and will always be a huge part of my life.

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That being said, growing up in the art world gave me different insights and forms of expression that were sometimes noted as “different” in high school. That’s when I made the shift from high art to pop art. It was at this time that I traded in my pointe shoes for the volleyball and piano lessons for voice. My taste in music had changed as well. I went from a true love of Mozart and often humming every tune in the Nutcracker Ballet (I had been in it for 10 years) to a love of all music that generated from the 60s in addition to a more eclectic music genres. In my very conservative high school I would walk around with Andy Warhexternal image Harry-Benson-Andy-Warhol-Bianca-Jagger1-250x180.jpgol paintings on display via purses. Many of my friends would ask me why I would carry an Andy Warhol bag over the latest designer bag. Therefore, I would find myself torn between my love of Andy Warhol (paired with the desire to be like Bianca Jagger) and the conservative high school norms. Don’t get me wrong, I love my high school and the main reason for this looming tear was my diverse group of friends (drama kids, sports people, and everything in between).

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The reason why I brought my transition to high school up for this week’s reading, is the reason why I chose this course. As soon as I saw the name Andy Warhol in the course description, I was hooked because so many times in my art studies especially in late high school to college, Warhol was not mentioned that often and whenever I would say that he was my favorite artist, some people would ignore the statement. Therefore, I am so pleased to be in a class where Warhol is acknowledged. Thank you!
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Getting to this week’s topic, and the prompt, I would like create a roadmap.

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First, I would like to create a bridge from last week’s reading to this week’s. Then I would like to mention some ideas from one Major Art History Reading. Finally, I would like to attempt to scratch the surface of the relationship between hybridity and dialogism and Warhol.

The Bridge to Sincerity in Mass Production:

When reading Richard Hamilton’s “Letter to Peter and Alison Smithson”, one word really stood out for me. That word is “sincerity”. He says “I find I am not yet sure about the ‘sincerity’ of Pop Art. It is not a characteristic of all but it is of some - at least, a pseudo-sincerity is. Maybe we have to subdivide Pop Art into its various categories and decide into which category each of the subdivisions of our project fits. What do you think?” (Hamilton). Even though the writer was questioning the sincerity in mass produced sections, that made me think about the sincerity in mass produced pop art. Is it just manufactured without thought or do people place a certain respect for such works of art? But, how can you add sincerity to something that is made via machines and not made with the artist standing there perspiring over perfection?

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In accordance, I found a story about Carnegie that suggests where there is a lack of sincerity in one aspect then there is the opportunity for sincerity in another.

Therefore, where one aspect is not apparent does it rear its head in another aspect? If we cannot be sincere in one way then are we sincere in another way. If we take the story of Carnegie, we can see many ways that sincerity balances the machine world. He created mass produced products but was sincere about his love for the arts and produced “mass” libraries all with the foundation of sincere interest. Then there’s that phrase “sincere interest” doesn’t everything start with sincere interest?

However, in the music scene, sincerity can be transformed into the mass produced. The recording of the voice for the masses has the foundation of an intimate setting where the voice is given life. Take the sincerity in this voice. Through this one recording, it is mass produced and given to the thousands of people so they can experience the sincerity of the voice.

For sincerity in music and art, there’s the example of a concert that I went to two weeks ago. I went to an Ingrid Michaelson concert in my hometown. At the merchandise table the worker mentioned that there are screen-printed items. Each work of original art had a number and was signed by the artist. This is often done for original work. It just reminds me of a sincerity found in the mass produced. Therefore, I believe that sincerity can be found in mass produced articles.

Do we internally make it sincere?

My question is, if we agree with the argument that there is a lack of sincerity in mass produced items, then can we make the items sincere? Do we transform the insincere to sincere by our daily lives? Do we bring life to the mass produced machine? Do we place the insincere in our lives and make it ours?

The idea of taking the insincere and creating a sincere place came from this quote.

"West Coast domestic architecture has become a symbol of a style of living as well as an example of architecture pure and simple; this has occurred not through the agency of architects but through the association of stylish interiors with leisure and the good life, mainly in mass circulation magazines for women and young marrieds."

When I read this quote I thought about taking an article from a magazine. This magazine is produced for people all over the world. Yet, an individual is reading this one magazine and applying to his or her life, making the article a sincere investment of a person’s time and applying it to his or her life. He or she becomes a “keeper of the flame”

The idea of the “keeper of the flame” comes from this quote: "Within this definition, rejection of the mass produced arts is not, as critics think, a defence of culture but an attack on it. The new role for the academic is keeper of the flame; the new role for the fine arts is to be one of the possible forms of communication in an expanding framework that also includes the mass arts."

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This week cleared up all of my questions of sincerity in regards to Warhol. Through the introduction, learned “to question core cultural values: orginality, authenticity, uniqueness, the artwork as an expression of an artist's mind, soul, or intentions.” (intro) Even though these works of art are from a mass collection, they are still a have an origin and the origin is the sincerity. For in order to assess the work of Warhol, I had to clear up the questions about sincerity.

As for Andy Warhol, “If you want to know all about Andy Warhol, just look at the surface of my paintings and film and me, and there I am. There’s nothing behind it.” (Duve and Krauss 11). Therefore, I don’t have any more questions about sincerity and Warhol.


Another bridge would be the idea of being a machine. Last week, I was very intrigued with the idea of everyday people becoming machines. The Duve and Krauss reading really explained the culture that I was aiming for. I guess for the terms of this class the culture can be seen as the Warhol Warp. The way he talks, the way he acts, the way he is. This can be the culture that people are striving for today especially in certain fashion cultures. This idea comes from the Duve and Krauss reading “Andy Warhol, or The Machine Perfected”.It says, “Warhol, an American Immigrant of working-class origins, wanted to be a machine”(Duve and Krauss 3). The reading continues to mention the act of being a machine. “I want to be a machine” (Duve and Krauss 9). Finally the idea is crystallized but this quote: “Warhol is the machine perfected. Not that his wish to be as numb as a machine was fulfilled. However he might have tried to appear as one, he was no less human than anyone else.”(Duve and Krauss 12).

Hybridity of Price but no value:

One form of hybridity would be the fusion of emphasis on nothing. “He knew the price of that which had no value” (Duve and Krauss 13). This quote could tell of many ideas and works of art that are presented by Warhol. But the reading suggests certain examples. Example from the text: Printing of money (Monopoly).This idea is very interesting and I would like to look at it some more.

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Ongoing Theme:

I understand the dialogism of Warhol as the presence today through various art forms. Fashion. The ongoing chain might be the continuing of producing the material into different mediums also seen in “The Warhol Effect: A Timeline”.external image 100212_LPNarsWarhol_ani.gif



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Works Cited:

Thierry de Duve, "Andy Warhol, or The Machine Perfected," October 48 (1989).

Metropolitan Museum, NY, "The Warhol Effect: A Timeline
."A good overview of major events in Warhol's life, accompanying the
Regarding Warhol: Sixty Years, Fifty Artists

Exhibition at the Metropolitan. Read for contexts.

Week 8

Andy Warhol as Case Study For Hybrid Art

Sagorika Sen

Andy Warhol,his love for the feminine and mashable art!

This week I wanted to concentrate on Andy Warhol’s iconic depiction of Elizabeth Taylor & Jacqueline Kennedy.

Danto says that “In a certain sense, life really begins when the story comes to an end, as in the story every couple relishes of how they found one another and "lived happily ever after."


The memories of Elizabeth Taylor live on through Andy Warhol’s depictions of her. In Warhol’s Liz one can see the iconoclast Liz Taylor- the diva, the global style icon, the celebrity, the lost soul,the fearlessnes that was Liz Taylor.

Warhol known to embrace feminism and all the women he loved were feminist icons in their own sense of the term- Marilyn ,Jackie or Liz Taylor. Warhol obsessively portrayed these women between 1962 & 65.



Whether it was his silk screen ink and acryclic paint on canvas depiction of Blue Liz as Cleopatra that showed her fifteen times..almost like a photographic film in an erratic speed. Warhol said that “The Liz paintings were begun while Taylor was recovering from emergency surgery. Recalling the shooting in Dallas,I heard the news over the radio while I was alone painting in my studio. I don't think I missed a stroke. That was the extent of my reaction.”

Warhol makes Liz look scary & dark in one depiction to fabulous in another to completely garish . His art certainly has a mood of it’s own.

With His painting of "sixteen jackies" he shows different emotions of Jacqueline Kennedy juxtaposed against each other. It almost makes the viewer think about how difficult it was for Jackie to balance all the several roles she was expected to play- from socializing first lady to a grieving young widow.



Sara Anderson

Campbell's Soup

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Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup as well as his other images of ordinary items can be thought about through several lenses. As in the Duve reading, capitalism is a very strong theme. Many of his images were of items that could be purchased and used in a capitalistic society, things that had advertisements running about them. Capitalism is not only present because of the images, but because of how they were created. The assembly line “factory” style production transforms art into a commodity and not a one of a kind piece. As commodities, they became a source of income for Warhol in another layer of capitalization.

resembles the grocery store shelf
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However, many people come to it without that in mind, and instead focus on how art is created from an ordinary object. Andy’s family was integral to his early work in particular, and Campbell’s Soup had very special significance to them. Before they were mass produced, his family helped with various aspects of the assembly line process. His nephew, James Warhola, actually brought the original into school for show and tell. He became an artist himself in no small part because of his uncle’s inspiration and encouragement.

Warhol’s work is intrinsically dialogic. His images of everyday objects in particular are connected in the most direct visual sense with everyday life. They also pull from art traditions of the portrait. In the case of some of his work, it takes the expectation of what should be put on a canvas and replies with something different. He combined the traditional ideas of art with his own aspirations and his pop art was the result. Many people have called his work superficial as a criticism, but on the most basic level he really is using an artistic surface to display things that are on the surface of our culture. Nothing about that is negative, it is in fact thought provoking and for many artists it’s inspiring. His works relate to each other, and inspired many other artists to create along a similar vein.


Wiki 8
Lauren Jones

Andy Warhol: The Greatest Artist Ever Sold

In his work entitled “Modern, Postmodern, and Contemporary,” Arthur Danto asserts that with the invention of pop art in the 1960s, art as we know it had come to an end. From the 1400’s to the 1960’s, the world’s history of art had followed similar patterns, stages, revolutions and rebellions. With the invention of photography and the popularization of mass media, mass communication, and mass production the society within which we lived had irrevocably altered; and, therefore, so had our ways of expressing ourselves.

It’s an interesting point but the fallacy within Danto’s argument is that he is classifying ‘art’ as something stagnant, something more concrete. The statement ‘art as we know it’ is flawed within itself. Art exists solely as a product of its culture and environment which is changing and fluctuating every second of every day. ‘Art as we know it’ does not exist.

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‘Warhol asked different questions about art. How does it differ from any other commodity? What value do we place on originality, invention, rarity, and the uniqueness of the art object? …Though Warhol isn’t always seen as a conceptual artist, his most perceptive critic, Arthur C. Danto, calls him “the nearest thing to a philosophical genius the history of art has produced.”’

In our previous class, I posed the question of whether or not Mr. Warhol would find the mass sale and reproduction of his pieces amusing. I would say that he would. In all honesty, I would go even further to pose of the question of whether or not he considered the individuals and the corporations who utilized his images so as to make a profit on a non-fine art scale i.e. magnets, t-shirts, stickers, etc. as artists themselves. In this way, Warhol’s genius would totally have surpassed the world of the museum.

Andy Warhol was very much intrigued but that of the production line and the removal of the artist’s hand. I would assert that based on the ideals of Mr. Warhol himself, whether it was intentional or not, the mass reproduction of the artist’s work for profit by various retail operations has lifted the role of corporations and companies to that of artist themselves.

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“The original mattered so little to Warhol that he didn’t even draw it—his longtime assistant Nathan Gluck made the first sketch, rubbed it down to make the tracing, and hinged the tracing to the Strathmore [a brand of high quality drawing paper]. Andy entered only for the coup de grâce, the inking and blotting…. What remained constant throughout Warhol’s career, whether he drew, painted, or silk-screened photographs, was his fascination with the simulacrum, the copy, the second-generation image. In commercial art, the division of labor is the norm. When Andy began using it in fine art in the sixties, he undermined the myth of the auteur, the sole, and solitary, fount of art.”

Further questions for the class: Do you think, in the end, it is his work that has influenced the art world so much, or is it the persona of the artist? Who or what has left the bigger legacy, the artist or the art itself? Has Andy become a product of his own reproduction line? And, was that his goal all along?

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Richard Dormant, "What is an Andy Warhol." Review essay, The New York Review of Books. Oct. 2009.

Arthur Danto,"Modern, Postmodern, and Contemporary," From After the End of Art (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1997): Chap. 1, pp. 3-19 (New York Times excerpt).


Week 8
Parody and Pop and Brillo Boxes
Stevie Chancellor

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I chose to look at Warhol’s reproduction of Brillo Boxes as an example of hybridity and dialogism as well as the interplay of commodity and artist in the modern age. I am going to posit that the Brillo Boxes are, as close reproductions of the original, the perfect parody of the Brillo Box and everything they stand for. I have a lot of ideas bouncing around in my head, so I apologize if this seems all over the place!

Commodity and Artist
Warhol was one of the most prominent artists that challenged the notion of art as an easily demarcated discipline. Danto describes the “end of art” in several essays where he indicates the end of art history as a grand narrative. Instead, everything can be art and no style is inherently not art. “Part of what the ‘end of art’ means is the enfranchisement of what had lain beyond the pale, where the very idea of a pale –a wall—is exclusionary…” (Danto)

Warhol’s Brillo Boxes personify the commodification and openness of the modern world. I like the Brillo Boxes even moreso than the Campbell’s Soup silkscreens because Warhol tried to replicate what a Brillo Box actually looks like. In physical space! It is in a sense the perfect parody of everything that the Brillo Box stands for!

Art is not just something on a canvas or a sculpture, art can be an object that represents. Warhol’s technique of silk screening to create near duplicates of products challenges the way we think about art. Can art be something that, even when done by the artist’s hand, is nearly identical to its sister?

Duve discusses Warhol as having some sort of ideal to be like a machine that produces art for value, not for price. I don’t know enough about Marx and the criticism of production society and capitalism to judge those parts of his argument. What I will say, however, is that Warhol’s art reflects the machination of art in the age where art is no longer about the process and paying for that but paying instead for the aesthetic value of the objects themselves.

“In this industry where social demand is motivated only by the prospect of exchange-value, where return on investment dominates, and where photography is used because it increases productivity, [Warhol] practiced a craft full of outmoded charm, recognized by the profession for its very personal qualities but sold at its exchange-value.” (Duve 12) The Brillo Boxes exemplify just this proposition. Duve notes earlier in his piece that the labor doesn’t matter anymore – it is literally the aesthetic value of what is created that matters. The irony of all this is that the Brillo Box piece that Warhol made parodies commodity. There are obvious references to dialogism here, but I want to focus on the hybridity of mixing commodity with art, commentary on society with a literal representation of the object itself!