"A Glimpse into the Musicology of Nostalgia"
Elizabeth-Burton Jones

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The microphone is turned on. There is some feedback. The buzz annoyingly rings in everyone’s ears. You have their attention. By everyone, I mean around thirty people. Thirty pairs of eyes staring at you like thirsty curious vampires that just caught the scent of your blood. They are fascinated and they are hungry.

But, you haven’t even started to play. The guitar has not been strummed. The room in the coffeehouse that was once filled with the grinding of the coffee beans, piping whistle of the espresso steamer, and the random laughter has turned down. The focus is on you. What do you sing?

In moments like these, it is time to choose to either do an original song or a cover song. Some might think, what’s the big deal? It’s just another performance. Sing whatever you want. So you, the singer, decide to sing an original song.

This very moment that I described is a moment that frightens me. To sing an original song, is to let the world in to your heart. To me, to perform an original song is to show your audience how you understand music theory and how you construct music. This is serious, at least to me.

Therefore, for the most part, I stick to singing cover songs (someone else’s work with my twist). I make this choice day in and day out because of the comfort of singing someone else's work and also because of the crowd’s reaction to the nostalgic notes that hit the airwaves.

Nostalgia. There's that word again. In the Cultural Hybridity class, we discussed the many possibilities of nostalgia. In class, I was first set onto the track of nostalgia by the "Everything is a Remix" movies. Being inspired by the Remix movies that have been assigned in class, I wanted to reflect upon the idea of nostalgia and how it frames our everyday musical remixes.

Artists can remix things forward or backward. To remix something forward would be similar to the Black Eyed Peas style of moving toward the future. To remix something backward, would relate to the Adele style of taking the listeners back in time where grit and grime could be heard in the voice. Then there is also remixing in the present, which can be found through artists that are in the middle and are equally swayed to the past as they are to the future. This paper will focus on the nostalgia of the remix to the past.

I wanted to write about this topic because each week, I would go back to nostalgia. Isn't that a funny concept? Whether it was looking at videos and observing the code or noticing the resurgence of some type of new wave of culture. Something just kept bringing me back. At first, I just thought that I was interested in this idea because of personal reasons. I tend to fancy things that are from a certain era because of my own historical tastes. I tend to enjoy the simplicity of the music from the past. No frills or should I say, no auto tune.

But throughout the class, after conversations with friends, and different blog posts, I started to notice the trends in musical taste. Specifically, what seemed to be more of an extraordinary artist versus an average artist? This notion led me to nostalgia because I started to notice the "cool factors" within music and the credibility that people would often give different singers. The singers that are more invested in not being mainstream or the singers that are mainstream but have a nostalgic way about them.

Therefore, the issue that I am looking at is the issue of nostalgia. I am arguing that nostalgia is important and has a secure place in an innovative music culture. I will research this topic by finding different forms of nostalgia, conducting an interview, and then looking at all sides. This article will go through the many modes of nostalgia (it won't go through each mode but it will cover many). Then, I will take all of the information and scramble it up and see what my end remix looks like.

Nostalgia: What is it and where can you find it?

external image 9033816-music-magnifying-glass-over-background-with-different-association-terms-vector-illustration.jpgTo begin this quest for nostalgia, there has to be a common goal and context defined. Nostalgia can be defined in various ways. Nostalgia can be seen in many art forms. To observe nostalgia in the musical world, it can still mean so many things. It can mean the usage of actual notes and reshaping the beat. It can be used as a parody or used for creative outlets.

For the purpose of this paper, nostalgia will represent the act of recycling the past for the betterment of the musical environment. According to Professor Irvine, nostalgia's complimentary element is history. “Nostalgia and retro styles, recycling earlier genres and styles in new contexts (film/TV genres, images, typography, colors, clothing and hair styles, advertising images)‘History’ represented through nostalgic images of pop culture, fantasies of the past. History has become one of the styles; historical representations blend with nostalgia” (Irvine, "The Postmodern"
"Postmodernity"Approaches to Po-Mo). With this understanding of nostalgia, we can think of it as inextricably linked to history but history is not inextricably linked to it. For instance, one could have history without creating nostalgia, but one could not have nostalgia without some nod to history.

Therefore, we can observe nostalgia as a code that feeds off of history. "Nostalgia is remixing a stylistic code, quoting a style or genre rather than some specific content. Most uses of nostalgia are an abstracted cliché of a style, associated with an earlier cultural moment. It can be very arbitrary (like nostalgia styles in Instagram and other photo alteration apps)." (Irvine) As a cliché linked to a cultural moment, nostalgia can be observed as a "cool factor".

For instance, the vintage "haute couture-ness" of it all. At least that's how I used to view nostalgia and maybe it's how I still see nostalgia. In high school and even now it seems unique to obey some lost code of history. Meaning, it was very edgy, if one person does something that is full of nostalgia (listened to music of a different era). In the world of music, it can be seen as more cutting edge if someone takes an old blade (an old song) and sharpens it. In my experiences, I tend to feel more invested in a "second-hand" performance, over a new performance. Maybe it is because of the act of imitating.

Another example could be rap tracks. These tracks take a "second-hand" approach. "On rap tracks, for instance, far from musical authority being dissipated into fragments and second-hand sounds it is enhanced by the attention drawn to the quoting act itself. " (Firth 115). The act of quoting creates a new level of sophistication another level of the education of the artist. For the artist to even know the music to use it as a quote is seemingly more respectable. By quoting different strands of music, we are taken to another level of nostalgia called pastiche.

Pastiche: noun \pas-ˈtēsh, päs-\

: "a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of previous work; also: such stylistic imitation"

Pastiche is very important to my study about nostalgia because it helps further define nostalgia. “Pastiche is, like parody, the imitation of a peculiar or unique style, the wearing of a stylistic mask, speech in a dead language: but it is a neutral practice of such mimicry, without parody's ulterior motive, without the satirical impulse, without laughter” (Jameson “Postmodernism and Consumer Society” 16). This definition rule points out the legitimacy of nostalgia. Yes, it can be seen as a parody but without the humor. I think this is important for my particular study because it cleared up my personal definition of nostalgia. For instance, one day in class was discussing different artists and the use of different instruments. Some of the instruments were seen as comical. Also, some of the artists dress was looked at as not serious. However, when I look at some artist’s different music scenes, I perceive their style as an identity and as an extension of their dedication to the nostalgia.

Reminiscent Rhythms:

Musicians can find many different ways to approach their identities. First, let's start with the music. The musician or the producer must first choose a musical style or at least create a brand. This brand idea would be based off of the music. If the artist has a distinct voice that is characterized by a time of nostalgia, than that creates another ballgame. Below, I have placed some artists that are singing songs that are reminiscent of a time in the past.

Nostalgia as an Identity:

external image Identity_article_image.jpg
Some musicians dare to take their music to different heights. This could mean that they not only dare to make their music go back to the roots, but they also dare to change their whole persona. Changing the musician's persona is changing the entire identity, which means that their whole brand image is now stuck in the past.

A musician's identity is crucial because it is their being. An "[i]dentity is about creating an environment where you can make the world act as your own reflection" (Miller 61). By making the "world act as your own reflection" the artist is not just changing a few notes. Instead, the artist is changing the whole aesthetics of their reflection.

To dive a little deeper into this idea Firth introduces the idea of the aesthetic experience:

"In examining the aesthetics of popular music, then, I want to reverse the usual academic and critical argument: the issue is not how a particu- lar piece of music or a performance reflects the people, but how it pro- duces them, how it creates and constructs an experience - a musical experience, an aesthetic experience...The aesthetic, to put this another way, describes the quality of an experience (not the quality of an object); it means experiencing ourselves (not just the world) in a dif- ferent way. My argument here, in short, rests on two premises: first, that identity is mobile, a process not a thing, a becoming not a being; second, that our experience of music - of music making and music listening - is best understood as an experience of this self-in-process. Music, like identity, is both performance and story, describes the social in the individual and the individual in the social, the mind in the body and the body in the mind; identity, like music, is a matter of both ethics and aesthetics. "(Firth 109). The most important aspect of this quote that relates to the paper, would have to be that there is a musical experience. This experience is not just one person, it involves many other aspects.

Firth also contributes to the idea of nostalgia as a an experience via the identity by mentioning the total experience. "Hip-hop, in other words, with its cut-ups, its scratches, breaks and samples, is best understood as producing not new texts but new ways of performing texts, new ways of performing the making of meaning. The pleasure of montage comes from the act of juxtaposition rather than from the labour of interpretation - and for the listener and dancer too, the fun lies in the process not the result. " (Firth 115). The part of this quote that really stood out for me, was the mention of the process. The result can be something that is examined separately by a musical student. However, the process is something for everyone. The process is the place where everything comes together.

To further illustrate the ideas that are mentioned in this section, we have the artists Adele and Bruno Mars. Adele and Bruno Mars both create an environment through aesthetics. From the hairstyles to the clothing to the props and sets, these artists are very expressive when it comes to their identities. They both dress and have mannerisms of a different era.

In these two videos Bruno Mars sounds like Sam Cooke and is exuding the identity of a singer from a distant era.

Not every artist goes to such extremes to create aesthetics. For instance, some artists simply change their sets to make it reminiscent of a certain time period. Believe it or not, some artists actually do not change any part of their performance; they just let their voice speak for them. However, each artist has a seat at the proverbial musical dinner table. Each amount of nostalgia that an artist carries with them is always relevant.

The Mashup:

The mashup, the mix, and the spin. Each artist is mashing the music into ways that he or she sees fit. The artists are taking the music and putting their spin on the work. Therefore, it is crucial to mention a few terms. Let's start with dialogism, intertextuality, and intermediality.

"Dialogism / Intertextuality / Intermediality
understanding new cultural forms through new interpretations of a cultural archive or encyclopedia of references and codes;
culture is an ongoing dialogue of statement and response, incorporating past and current conversations into new statements and expressions.
expression and understanding are the two dimensions of human meaning-making, and meaningful expressions in one moment come from somewhere (prior expressions, media, genres, frames for understanding) and generate other expressions going somewhere else."

"Dialogism is the generative engine of culture. All cultures are always already dialogic.
Culture is a multi-dimensional, multi-modal, cacophonous, ongoing, unlimited, unfinalizable conversation across time and place, in which members of cultural communities are always assuming, subsuming, responding to, and anticipating additional expressions that are only possible and intelligible within their culture."

"Hybridity/remix/appropriation/dialogism is the default 'always-already-on' state of culture, but it is usually invisible, unconscious, unrecognizable, and unintelligible until brought to conscious awareness through self-reflexive descriptions."

With these terms defined, we can properly look at the Mashup. The Mashup is an integral part of nostalgia because it is a direct line of dialogism. Professor Irvine mentions that "[t]he terms hybridity, remix, and dialogism designate both concepts and social processes that cut across a wide range of cultural, economic, historical and technological domains. “This relates to nostalgia because it helps explain the idea of the continuous realm of music. The continuous realm of music is important because after realizing that music is continuous, then it is easier to grasp the idea of music from the past being placed in today's world. The first video in this section to the right is a sample of a clear mashup. This connects two songs starting with one, then transitioning to the next, and finally fusing them both together. The second video demonstrates a different side of dialogism. Through DJ Earworm's "United State of Pop 2009", the music of the year is tied together and made to work. There is no clear beginning or ending of the sound, the sound is smooth. This chain is very smooth.

The next few videos are other examples of mashups. I even included one of my own. When, I created my mashup, I took two, unrelated songs and created a new one. I have found that the meat of the song is when they are mixed together and there is that sense of familiarity.

Next we have the mixing of different genres. This can be seen through the next video. This video not only is a good example of the ability for a mashup of cultures and genres to create a new time, a new comfort of all of the elements that are involved. Meaning, if someone puts different musical icons in one song, then it is not only creating a nostalgia for each genre, but it is creating a new world, a world where the different genres can get together and create a new sound.

This next video looks at the musical theory of all of the music.

The mashup culture deliberately takes lyrics and notes and rearranges them to create a new form. Now with our definition of Mashup and our take on all of the cultures we can look at the remix.

The Remix:

Some other terms that need to be addressed are the ideas of remixes and quoting. When one thinks of a remix, one can often look at the different figures being twisted and turned and made into a new form. This can be identified as a replication. "Replication as differentiated from mere reproduction. Reproduction as it stands derived from 'reply': the copies transcend the originals, the original is nothing but a collection of previous cultural movements" (Miller 36). It is important to note that a replication through the lens of the remix stems from the continuous dialogism. Meaning, since culture introduces the observer to an "ongoing" world, each new reproduction is a new section in the "cultural encyclopedia". Each product (the produced and the reproduced are equally important to the book.

Another important aspect of nostalgia is the area of quoting. Nostalgia is reusing musical notes to create a new song. "We all expect that we can quote, or incorporate, other people's words into what we write or say. And so we do quote, or incorporate, or remix what others have said" (Lessig 82). Quoting also contributes to this "ongoing" sense of cultural expression.

Covering The Classics:

To further explain the ideas of dialogism and remixes, we can look at the art of covering music. Covering music (or covering the standards) is not a new idea. But what pertains to this paper is the idea of looking back and taking a different stance by either enhancing or paying homage.

To enhance and take another spin on classic music we have Sergio Mendes and his refurbished album. This album was in collaboration with many artists. These artists took some of his old music and put new singers on the tracks. Not only was this a remix of the original music, but it was also a form of nostalgia. By taking music from the past, the signature sound of Sergio Mendes and Brazil 66, the producers were re-introducing the sound and identity of the group. This practice of covering music is very common.

Another way of covering the classics is to further infuse nostalgia by the image. The Nat King Cole and Natalie Cole songs can exemplify this. For a few songs, Natalie Cole took her fathers signature sound and added her voice. To continue with the nostalgia, she made music videos with her father in them. These music videos ooze nostalgia because not only were they dramatized to create a nostalgia feel, but also they truly were nostalgic. It was nostalgia on nostalgia.

Then there are album covers and re-makes:
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Nostalgia and Holiday Music:

Another example of continuous nostalgia is the holiday season and the staying power of the classics. For the most part, listeners continue to go back to holiday music. The classics tend to be older songs. Just as any genre, it is very difficult for artists to make classics, unless it is a big superstar like Justin Beiber. These songs are continuously reproduced with new remixes. But, the big question is: how can the music become a classic? Yes, the music can become a hit, similar to Justin Beiber's song "Mistletoe" which has over 134,831,216 views on YouTube. Or yes, a song can be a hit like Mariah Carey's "All I want for Christmas is You".

But, how do the songs survive the sands of time? Now only time can tell, but through my conversations with other musicians, I believe that the staying power, specifically the holiday staying power, has a lot to do with the nostalgia in the music. The nostalgia in the music is read as code. For instance, take the Wham song "Last Christmas" this song is on the brink of becoming a Holiday Classic. But let's deconstruct this song. If we take the music and the instrument usage, we can notice the code that is displayed through the bells. The jingle bells are code for nostalgia because of the reproduction of this holiday sound that's found in many holiday songs. The jingle bells tend to be the nostalgic point for people to relate to the chain of classic music such as "Jingle Bell Rock" or "Sleigh Ride". This is just one example of reading the classic code.

Nostalgia in the charts today?

But, what about mainstream music today? Is nostalgia present in music that's not being covered and music that's not holiday music? Yes, nostalgia is still present today. It is present in songs like "Good Feeling" that's mentioned above, but it is also mentioned in a different way. I initially intended on looking at the Billboard Charts and trying to dissect certain songs and finding their significance. However, I found that very difficult. So I switched routes.

After reading more and more music titles, I discovered that instead of purely rhythm and beat reproduction and remix, a trend seems to be name dialogism and name nostalgia. This concept is also, not a new concept, but I just noticed that nostalgia is still present in recent music just by another way. I think that to engage different audiences, some producers are tying words and themes together to get more record sales. For instance, the concept of "stronger". "Stronger" is not a unique word. But the link that is in each song seems to be the same. Each song shares a common thread. This is important to realize because it demonstrates the many ways that nostalgia plays a key part in the music world. It's not solely demonstrated by the music notes, but by the words as well.

Revivals and Remaking:

On the same note, revivals are very popular too. Specifically, I am talking about musical revivals on Broadway and the big screen.

By going back to a wonderful production, it seems as though there is a connection. A connection to success, but what is it?

Looking at Nostalgia through the lens of American Folklore:

Many people I asked said nostalgic music makes us "feel comfortable" with the style "it reminds us of something". But what is that something. I would like to know what that "something" is that we feel. To help me find the connection, I went to the Library of Congress and the American Folklife Research room. There, I was mesmerized by all of the material.

After talking with a few reference librarians, I was lead to the "historic-geographic method" in the book "The Study of American Folklore: An Introduction Fourth Edition" by Jan Harold Brunvand it says that ,"[t]he ultimate goals of this method were to write 'life histories' of individual folktales and to reconstruct an archetype (archetype), or a hypothetical original form, for each tale. The method was based on the assumption that complex folktales have a single origin in one time and one place (rather than having resulted from polygenesis), and that each tale then spread throughout its present area of distribution by autommigration--that is, from person to person, without needing large-scale folk migrations to carry it. Although scholars employing the historic-geographic method were never able to make a definitive statement of exactly where a given tale began, their studies pointed to India as probably the most important center of folktale dissemination" (Brunvand 257-258). This reading debunked one of my original ideas about the origin of musical dialogism and the original works of the cultural encyclopedia.

The cultural encyclopedia to my knowledge includes the embedded.
In "Remix / Dialogism / Hybridity: Introduction to Concepts" Professor Irvine says that "
[a]ll of our individual expressions necessarily assume and embed the expressions of others, either in an immediate context (like conversation) or in cultural genres that unfold in a larger environment, both contemporary (during our own time) and an inherited cultural memory (acultural encyclopedia)."

However, after reading different sections and different articles, I found that I was searching for the wrong answer. Rather than trying to find the origin of the dialogism and nostalgia. I shifted my focus to the recognition of the forms of nostalgia.

So with the help of a few librarians, I turned to the "Handbook of American folklore" edited by Richard M. Dorson and the idea of cultural myths. It says that, "[h]oliday traditions also mark transitions and celebrate characters in the family. Seasonal and calendrical changes are the basis of Christmas, Easter, and the New Year. Birthdays, baptisms, bar mitzvahs, weddings, anniversaries, and funerals mark the passage through life at the same time that they focus on a particular figure in the family. Whereas stories encapsulate experience in a set verbal piece, and photoghraphs on kodachrome, family celebrations capture the past by reenacting it. Oftentimes, American cultural and religious holidays are a symbolic representation of a historical event. Jews partake of the bitter herb on Passover to relive in some way the trials of the Israelites in Egypt. The manger scene on American mantels at Christmas suggest a re-creation of the birth of Christ.......Family celebrations symbolically re-create not only the original episode but all the subsequent occasions on which it was celebrated. Christmases recall past Christmases." (Dorson 95-98). This led me to the idea that it nostalgia is important, but why?

Cultural Significance:

I guess, all roads lead to the significance of awareness. From Marcus Garvey "A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots." It is important to know the musical past or the contents in the cultural encyclopedia. During my search for the significance of nostalgia, I asked a local musician, Ashley Brooke Toussant, a few questions about nostalgia and how it's translated into the world of cover music. Her answers show that we must be cognizant of the past and use that knowledge to find our own voices.

When I asked Ashley: What inspires your voice? Are there are any artists that you try to sound like? If so, why? She said "I honestly don't try sounding like anyone else. I have my favorite singers/voices (Doris Day, Dusty Springfield, Patty Griffin) but I don't know how to emulate and I'm glad. I'd like to sing like myself". This knowledge of her "favorite singers/voices" is the knowledge that she carries with her. She takes this knowledge of the past and recognizes it but moves forward. The act of moving forward, I guess is the whole cultural promise of nostalgia.

Nostalgia might take the form of a reminder of the greatness and the potential for greatness. By re-introducing the listener to the music (or introducing the listener to the music) the listener has the ability to go forward with this knowledge and create a new world of music, a new remix.

How do we read it?

external image 040ede0e.jpgThis is complex.
In “Remix / Dialogism / Hybridity: Introduction to Concepts” Professor Irvine mentions that, "[t]he hybrid, mixed, dialogic aspects of culture and cultural works are often suppressed or misrecognized because of the force of dominant ideologies in the modern world. We've learned not to see, misrecognize, or misunderstand this 'default state' of culture from ideologies and beliefs that cut in a different direction: the mostly unquestioned (or naively accepted) social values of individuality, originality, creativity, authenticity, authorship, ownership, and the legal regimes of copyright and intellectual property law that assume and encode these ideologies."

Some ways to read the aspects of dialogism in music can be complex and up the listener. However sometimes it is relatively easy to hear a note and recognize that that note is paying homage to another distant time. However, it all depends on the listener. Each listener has a different musical education background, not each listener recognizes the right quote. Therefore, discovering the codes are relative in a way.

It is up to the listener. Paul D. Miller says that, "[f]or the most part, creativity rests in how you decontextualize the previous expression of others, a place where there is no such thing as ‘an immaculate perception’." (Miller 33). I guess that is the whole point of nostalgia in music as well. It is all how the person unwraps the music. One person's life might make them more privy to certain music stylings and therefore, more apt to discover certain hints of quoting. However, even if the person knows so much about music and quoting it might be impossible to actually realize all of the quotes that surround us because "we find ourselves caught in a complex web of visual and psychological cues, a form of kinesthethesia that pervades everything we do, an uncanny cipher regulating the traffic of plural meaning that bombard us at every moment" (Miller 32). This web, just shows how nostalgia is unavoidable.


There is always the option of never noticing a musical quote. By using the word sincere, I am not using the typical definition of sincerity because it is almost not reasonable to know the complete feeling of the artist. We might never know what's inside of the artist's mind when he or she is singing. However, we do know what is being mass-produced. We have the product. I guess this definition of sincerity has to do with the sound. Does it seem real or manufactured?

It is almost like images in the 1940's whether we know if the people are airbrushed or seemingly natural beauties. I believe with the quest to rage against the constant current of moving forward and move farther and farther away from our uniqueness, we tend to trust the sound of the past. Therefore, when we recognize the styles and the looks of the past we can identify with such.

But what about the emotional pull of nostalgia. Firth says, "A good jazz performance, that is to say (like any good musical performance), depends on rhetorical truth, on the musicians' ability to convince and persuade the listener that what they are saying matters. This is not a matter of representation orr 'imitation' or ideology but draws, rather, on the African-American tradition of 'signifying'; it puts into play an emotional effect, a collusion between the performer and an audience which is engaged rather than detached, knowing rather than knowledgeable." (Firth 117). This emotional aspect is something that some people yearn for in music. In a world of production, the emotional aspect is sometimes lost or replaced with digital techniques. This yearning for the past, the emotional effect of the voice, the untainted voice, is the nostalgia that holds everyone together in the search for our musical past and hope for the musical future.

Positive or Negative?

But, is all of this hoping positive or negative? Is it even productive? I believe that this is positive because we need to learn from the past. I think we should not rely on the past wholeheartedly, but I think we should use it as a foundation. I believe that we should take what we know from the past and use it to move into the future to create a new spin on music in efforts to not let the musical styles become forgotten points of history. Some people might believe that it is not necessary to always harp on the past. They might believe that the future is more interesting, but I believe, like it was mentioned before by Marcus Garvey, that we can't move into the future without knowledge of the past (without "roots").

So what does this all mean. From movies and musical reviving the themes to artist quoting musical notes. For instance, have you ever had a moment when you spend so much time trying to remember who a specific actor is? When you find out who that actor or singer is you feel comfortable you feel as if you know that person. Yet, for the most part, we do not know the actor, we do not know the singer, we are not attached to the song. But we choose to attach ourselves to specific parts of the movie world. We choose to connect a part of ourselves to have some attachment to have some state in the world. It is like a horcux from Harry Potter.

In the Harry Potter story, Voldermort split himself into many many parts. Even though his intention was evil, we can still say that Voldermort just wanted to stay relevant, he wanted to live on. I will not dally in the psychology of the longing to find ourselves in the world, but I will atleast acknowledge it. I will acknowledge that we long to stay relevant in today's world, and one way that we can stay relevant is by surrounding ourselves with things that we've known. By doing so, we feel as though we are surrounded by the familiar. This contributes to that nostalgic feeling of "comfort" that was mentioned earlier in this paper. So, if you get nothing from this last paragraph, please take away that I think that nostalgia is positive.

I think it is positive because we can stay with the community. Some people could argue that inventing new music or things is the way of the future. I agree that that is necessary but how can we move forward without recognizing the past. Therefore, I believe that recognizing the past in all of its forms is necessary to learn about the all of the world of music. Even if people say that they are not interested in emulating someone, they still recognize the past they recognize it first and then go forward. It is like the "cultural encyclopedia".


The feelings are relative. Something that is familiar to me may not be familiar to you. However, the common ground lies with the idea of significance. It is very significant to look at the past and then walk around with the knowledge and then the ability to choose whether or not to use the knowledge. I think Jameson says it best. “[F]or whatever peculiar reasons, we seem condemned to seek the historical past through our own pop images and stereotypes about that past, which itself remains forever out of reach” (Jameson “Postmodernism and Consumer Society” 20). However, what we can do is look for examples of nostalgia in performer identities, musical codes, etc. From there we can at least grasp the "comfort" that many people associate with nostalgia.
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Works Cited:

-Paul D. Miller (DJ Spooky), Rhythm Science. MIT Press, 2004. ISBN: 026263287X
-Words and concepts of collage (Miller 64) and code (Miller 64) come from
Paul D. Miller (DJ Spooky), Rhythm Science. MIT Press, 2004. ISBN: 026263287X
-Lawrence Lessig, Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy. Penguin Press, 2008. ISBN: 0143116134
-Librarians from the Library of Congress ideas on: Vinyls:The perfect example? A culture that has "never known vinyls".
Souvenirs, creating traditions, and furniture.
-Jameson, "Postmodernism and Consumer Society." From E. Ann Kaplan, ed. Postmodernism and its Discontents (London and New York: Verso, 1988): 13-29. His first statement of the argument that appears in his Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism.
-Simon Frith, "Music and Identity" (from Stuart Hall and Paul Du Gay, eds.,Questions of Cultural Identity, London: Sage, 1996).
-Discussions with Professor Irvine
-Interview with Ashley Brooke Toussant Bigler, Librarians from the Library of Congress, John Boles
-Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents (Das Unbehagen in der Kultur; literally "The Uneasiness in Culture") (1930) (Wikipedia overview) (etext excerpts).
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-Irvine, "The Postmodern"
"Postmodernity"Approaches to Po-Mo
-Brunvand, Jan Harold. The Study of American Folklore: An Introduction. 4th ed. New York: Norton, 1986. Print.(; Inta Gale Carpenter, associate editor ; Elizabeth Peterson, Angela Maniak, assistant editors ; with an introduction by W. Edson Richmond.)
-Dorson, Richard M., ed. Handbook of American Folklore. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1983. Print.
-Some of the sources might be repeated.
-For more information on the YouTube videos, please feel free to click on them or watch them on the YouTube page. This will give you more information about the source.
-For more information about the readings please feel free to look around this page:
http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/CCTP725/CCTP725-syllabus.html It lists all of the information from class and additional reading.